This article lays out a number of the options that are well-supported by research (as well as some that are slightly futuristic):

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Taken from the article above

From international and US evidence, the top measures are nationally standardized background checks, domestic violence orders, ammunition background checks — these can be done like in Switzerland, where you need a license to purchase ammunition — and storage measures.

In terms of the evidence: a 2016 Lancet paper estimated that these simple, well accepted measures — and let’s be honest, they are hard to argue against — could prevent up to 90% of gun deaths. That may sound high, but it’s broadly in line with the reductions that other countries, such as the UK and Australia, have seen in the past. Whilst the massive gun buybacks tend to get the most attention, the commonsense legislation that sits behind them is what actually tends to reduce gun harms the most.

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